Thunder Megaphone – A Glacial Valley Can Focus and Amplify Thunder Into a Most Extraordinary Sound

We’ve all heard thunder, and we all know what causes it. Many of us have heard two distinct kinds of thunder, but perhaps we never really noticed or thought about it. Recently, I heard a third kind of thunder.

“Ordinary” thunder – a thoroughly extraordinary sound, but the kind of thunder we hear most often – happens when lightning occurs at some distance from the observer. The initial sound of the lightning bolt echoes off surrounding objects and air masses. Because it is echoed so many times, the thunder stretches out into many, many seconds, even though the initial sound might have lasted a second or two at most. Moreover, because the initial sound echoes off soft things with indistinct surfaces – clouds, thermoclines, and weather fronts – and because many echoes reach the ears of the observer at different times, the original sound is greatly distorted. Almost all high frequency components are filtered out, and the observer hears mostly a low-pitched rumble.

When lightning strikes very close to the observer, within a few hundred feet, the sound is entirely different. The observer might not hear echoes of the thunder at all, but only the pure initial sound. It is a single, sharp, intense “POW!” It may be followed by a much quieter, but still loud, whistling or hissing sound.

But what about that third kind of lightning?

I was camping alone in Crawford Notch State Park in northern New Hampshire, when thunderstorms began rolling into the valley just after dinner. I tidied up my campsite just before the rain started, then retreated to my tent. One thunderstorm passed without much incident.

Darkness had fallen by the time the second thunderstorm rolled up from the south. I occupied myself by counting the time interval between lightning and thunder to track the movements of the storms. Fifteen seconds before the thunder rolled up from somewhere west of Mount Bemis, and I knew the storm was just under three miles southwest of me. Seven seconds between the flash and the rumble beyond Frankenstein Cliff, and I knew the storm was passing nearly a mile and a half to my west.

And then it happened!

A flash. I counted eleven seconds. And I heard a sound unlike any thunder I had ever heard before.

The cacophony included at least half a dozen rapid repetitions of the “POW!” of a nearby lightning strike. But at the same time, there was the rumbling and roaring of “ordinary” thunder, but much, much louder than usual.

Before I could figure out what that sound was, there was another flash somewhere to the north. Again I counted eleven seconds, and again I heard that utterly incredible crackling and powing and rumbling and roaring.

This time, I figured it out.

It was a lightning strike right within the upper reaches of Crawford Notch just a couple of miles north of me. It was right within a gigantic stone megaphone formed by Webster Cliff on the east, Mount Field and Mount Willey on the west, and the old glacial cirque of Mount Willard for a backstop on the north.

And this 1,500 foot deep, three-mile-long granite megaphone was pointed right at Dry River Campground.

Yes, the beautiful U-shaped glacial valley of Crawford Notch is a nearly perfect megaphone, albeit open on top. The bare stone faces of Mount Willard and Webster Cliff echoed the initial “POW!” of the thunder almost undistorted. The western slope of the notch is a bit more heavily wooded, but there’s enough bare ledge and rockslide there to provide a pretty good echo. The open top of the notch was covered by the underbelly of the thunderstorm itself, which provided enough of a soft echoic surface to create the usual rumbling of thunder in addition to the clean “POW!” echoes off the rock faces.

But all of this sound was extraordinarily loud because of the megaphone that focused it all right on me and my campsite.

After I got this all figured out, there was a third lightning flash in the north. Yes, eleven second later, there was that glorious, unearthly sound again.

I wondered why I had never heard this kind of thunder before. I have probably experienced thunderstorms in Crawford Notch at least a dozen times over the years, but never heard the Thunder Megaphone.

My best guess is that I probably have heard it before, but never noticed it. Most of the times I’ve camped there, it was with a crowd of friends and family. Much goes on when a thunderstorm rolls in. Ponchos have to be broken out and put on, while at the same time, various disorderly what-nots need to get stashed into cars and tents before they get soaked. There is a bit of yelling and shouting to be done, and paradoxically among the mayhem, kids and dogs need to have their fears calmed. Meanwhile, tarps over the tents and picnic tables are flapping in the gales, making a poor imitation of thunder themselves.

In all my 25 years camping in Crawford Notch, this may have been the first time I experienced a thunderstorm while I was camping there alone. There was no tarp over the tent, and I had anticipated the thunderstorm well enough to get everything into the car long before the rain started.

So, when the lightning and thunder came, I had nothing to do but observe.

What a treat!

I half hope we get a thunderstorm the next time we go camping in the mouth of the Thunder Megaphone.

Work at Home Typing – How to Evaluate the Best Programs

The internet is creating flexible and lucrative opportunities enabling average people to earn the kind of money that can supplement or even replace their full time income. One of the most popular income generating programs is work at home typing.

Advantages of Work at Home Typing

Work at home typing has many advantages. You can work when you want because there are no set hours. You can work where you want, at home or anywhere there is an internet connection. With the high cost of fuel these days this is a great advantage for those who feel the pinch at the pump. The traditional concept of “going to your job” is gone! A walk to the coffee shop, beach or park for example can be your workplace as long as you have a wireless internet connection, and a laptop computer.

How Work at Home Typing Programs Work

The way work at home typing programs work is simple. You sign up with a typing program online and receive an extensive list of companies that are in need of data entry work. These companies will send typing assignments to your email address; you complete the assignment and submit it back to the company. You are paid per assignment. It’s pretty straightforward.

Actual Work Description

The actual work done with these work at home typing programs is simple, usually consisting of typing 3-5 lines into a pre-formatted input form. You will be constructing what is called pay per click ads for which there is currently tremendous demand; so much that online companies can’t hire enough people to meet daily demand. You needn’t be creative or a good typist, as the ads are pre-composed; you merely fill in the blanks.

Income potential is unlimited and depends on how aggressively you pursue assignments.

Evaluating a Work at Home Typing Program

There are guidelines you should follow when choosing an online work at home typing program.

1.) In business for at least 1 year

2.) Well organized, easy to navigate directories

3.) Directories updated at least weekly

4.) Helpful resources available for newcomers

5.) No “waiting period”. Eligible immediately

6.) Customer service available via phone or email

7.) 100% guaranteed.

Make sure you evaluate the company based on these criteria when deciding whom to sign up with. You don’t want to waste your time with companies with out-dated databases, poor member support or hard to navigate member areas within the specific programs website. If the work at home typing program meets these requirements above you should be ok, and after you sign up expect to get started working soon.

How to Get Affordable Car Insurance in Ohio

People who live in the state of Ohio may be in for a surprise when they open their mailbox. In this state the Bureau of Motor Vehicles sends out 280,000 requests a year to see proof of insurance. Once someone receives one of these notices in the mail they only have three weeks to prove they have insurance. Although it’s obviously mandatory to have car insurance, some people forego it because of the price. There are ways to find affordable car insurance and some are not things most people are aware of including:

o Using one insurance company for all your policies including car, home, health and life. Insurance companies give discounts to individuals who purchase more than one type of insurance from them. Ask your health insurance or life insurance agent about a quote for car insurance.

o Buying a car that costs less to insure. Most people never consider the insurance costs that are associated with a particular type of car before they buy it. Call several insurance agents and ask for quotes on a car you are considering buying. You may be surprised to learn exactly how expensive it is, and if you find this out before you finalize the sale, you can save yourself a lot of money.

o Mention that you have a car alarm or consider getting one. A car alarm is a great idea for many reasons including the reduction you are likely to experience in insurance costs. Any effort that you make to keep your car safer is viewed in a good light by the insurance company. You’ll have to be prepared to show proof that the car alarm system is indeed installed.

The most important factor in determining your car insurance rates is likely your driving record. If you have been in more than one accident in the last few years or you have a pile of speeding tickets with your name on them, you are obviously going to have a more difficult time getting an affordable rate. If this is the case, make a resolution to start driving safely now and you’ll see your rates steadily drop.

Email Marketing – The Pros And Cons of Marketing With Email

Many small businesses are considering jumping into the world of email marketing. Email marketing has many different advantages, but it also has a few drawbacks that you need to keep in mind. The truth is that when utilized in the correct fashion it can be an extremely powerful and cost effective way of promoting your business and producing more sales. Once you learn about the pros and cons of email, you will be able to begin your own campaigns and get started down the path towards increased success and profitability.

The Advantages of Email Marketing

There are several key benefits to running an email marketing campaign. One of the most important is how cost efficient is can be. There is no other form of direct marketing that is as cheap as email marketing is. A 2005 study by the Winterberry Group found that for every dollar spent on email marketing, $15.50 was earned in return. There is much relevant data pointing to email marketing having a superior ROI than telemarketing, direct mail campaigns, radio or billboard advertisements and more.

Another advantage that email has is that you can quickly get your message across, and you can reach your customers and prospects in a place where they are comfortable communicating. If you have an idea for a new sale or promotion for the upcoming weekend, you can inform all of your customers about that immediately. With print advertising, traditional direct mail or anything else, the turnaround time could be days or possibly even a week or more.

One of the real strengths to running an email campaign is how effectively you can track the results that it produces. You will be able to see every click that is made to your website as a result of the email, and you will be able to see statistics such as how many people read the message, how many times they read it, if they ended up making a purchase and on down the line.

There is no other form of marketing or advertising that produces such an array of in-depth statistics. It’s an invaluable way to track your marketing efforts, and make the most out of every dollar you put into promotion.

Finally, another important advantage to email marketing that you will want to remember is that it’s the perfect way to convert prospects over a long period of time. No matter how great your products or services may be, not every person will be immediately ready to make a purchase or investment. Email marketing is the perfect tool to continue chipping away at those prospects over the long haul. By developing a relationship with each prospect and providing them with useful information, you will gain their trust and stay at the forefront of their mind.

The Disadvantages of Email Marketing

The largest disadvantage of email marketing is that so many people today are fed up with spam. All of our accounts are flooded with wasted emails everyday, and it’s a worldwide plague of the largest scale. Because of this, many people are wary about opening up emails from businesses, or about trusting anything they see in their inbox.

You can help combat this problem by being as transparent as possible. This means making it easy for people to see who is sending your message and what it’s about. It also means ensuring that all of your email addresses are used with permission, and you never purchase a list or steal addresses from another website.

Another disadvantage with email marketing is that far too many small business owners or managers know how to make a campaign work for them. Perhaps they try using gimmicks or copying an email that somebody else sent out. However, a much more effective strategy is sticking within your own identity, playing to your strengths and providing your prospects and customers with exactly what they are looking for.

Making Email Marketing Work for You

The bottom line is that the benefits of email marketing far outweigh the disadvantages. It’s all about learning how to run your own campaigns in the right way, and for maximum success there will be some trial and error as you traverse that path. By not utilizing email campaigns you’re missing out on a huge opportunity to help your business become more efficient and more profitable.